Uncertainty reigns over the impact of post-entry adjustments of provisional customs values, mainly in the context of retroactive transfer pricing adjustments. Part of this uncertainty stems from the landmark Hamamatsu case (C-529/16) of 20 December 2017. Though the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) had the chance to provide more clarity on the customs treatment of retroactive transfer pricing adjustments, the outcome only provided partial guidance while leaving room for altering interpretations among…